The Associated Press has compiled a style guide of essential words, phrases and definitions to help with spelling and usage of terms for the World Economic Forum Jan. 25-29 in Davos, Switzerland. The guidance includes key financial terms likely to figure in discussions. Some terms are from the AP Stylebook: http://www.apstylebook.com/. Others are common usage in AP news stories. The terms include input from European Regional Editor Niko Price, European Business Editor Phillip Tutt, Geneva Chief Correspondent John Heilprin and Paris Acting Chief of Bureau Angela Charlton, who are all involved in coverage of the Davos forum involving nearly 40 heads of state and 18 of the world's central bankers among 2,600 participants from nearly 100 countries. See a list of terms below sent to AP members and subscribers in a Jan. 19 advisory.
Financial aid for a company or nation unable to meet debt obligations.
The owner of a loan certificate issued by company or government.
Acronym for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China as emerging powerhouses.
When money from an investment moves from one country to another.
Rising interest rates that make loans less affordable to businesses, governments or individuals.
A term for the global elite -- financiers, politicians, celebrities -- who rub shoulders at the annual World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Coined to disparage those who put self-interest ahead of their country's interests.
Hyphenated in AP usage.
Failure to meet financial obligations.
To cut long-term corporate debt as a proportion of shareholders' equity.
International talks begun in 2001 in Doha, Qatar, aimed at cutting tariffs and helping poor countries boost trade. Diplomats say the talks are deadlocked.
A negative trend in economics or business.
earth vs. Earth
Lowercase in most uses: down to earth; earth mother. Capitalized the name of the planet: The astronaut returned to Earth.
A diverse community of animals and plants, and the surrounding chemical and physical elements that provide nutrients and energy to sustain them.
A ban or restriction on trade applied to goods entering or leaving a country, often as a tool of foreign policy.
Nations in transition to market economies from state control.
Describing a person who takes on the risk of organizing and managing a business with a profit motive.
Currency used by 17 of the 27 countries in the Europe Union, known as the eurozone.
European debt crisis
A main topic of the 2012 World Economic Forum.
The 27-nation community sharing laws and trade policies. The EU is based in Brussels.
Foreign direct investment by developed countries in emerging economies. FDI on second reference.
Budgetary matters, such as taxes, debt and spending vs. supply of money.
Swiss dish in which bread cubes are dipped in melted cheese flavored with wine, or thin slices of meat or vegetables are cooked in simmering broth.
Hyphenate the abbreviated term for the Group of 20 industrial and emerging-market nations.
An informal gathering to discuss weighty issues, sometimes used satirically for the World Economic Forum.
The worldwide spread of ideas, technology or other commerce.
Private investment partnerships that seek quick profits by placing large sums in currency, bond and stock markets.
International Monetary Fund
Supply of money supported by member nations and used to stabilize international currencies and trade. IMF acceptable on second reference.
Founder and leader of the World Economic Forum. In a preview, he said capitalism in its traditional form is no longer really working. The world's major economies are burdened by debt and have "failed to learn the lessons" from the 2008-2009 financial crisis.
Nongovernmental organization, usually a nonprofit, humanitarian organization. NGO on second reference.
Countries having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICs, the world's largest economies in the 21st century: Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey and Vietnam.
One word, no hyphen.
Protests in U.S. cities and elsewhere that grew out of Occupy Wall Street in New York City. The actions focused on perceived claims of corporate excess and economic inequality.
High achievers who succeed through ability, luck and the willingness to work, rather than inborn genius. Also, people or things outside the statistical norm.
A pattern or model held up as a desirable example or concept.
Spelled as compounds in AP Style.
Decline of economic activity that may be a temporary phenomenon or could continue into a depression.
Debt issued only by a government.
Two words in AP Style.
the 1 percent
Richest segment of Americans. Term popularized by Occupy Wall Street protesters who claim to speak for the other 99 percent.
High tariffs or other barriers to shield domestic producers from competition by foreign producers.